"Risk-Adjusted Damages Calculation in Breach of Contract Disputes: A Case Study"

Risk-adjusted valuation is well established in both theory and business practice. However, its implications are not always immediately apparent or intuitive in legal disputes such as breach of contract lawsuits. In particular, damages are often calculated by discounting the differences in cash flows between but-for (no breach) and actual (breach) worlds by a single discount rate. While widely used, this approach can produce incorrect valuation results. This paper provides a case study of a breach of an electricity tolling agreement to illustrate the more general valuation principle of discounting but-for and actual cash flows using two discount rates.