What are an attorney’s ethical obligations in e-discovery? Is a written litigation hold or a preservation letter to a client really required? What does certifying discovery requests and responses actually mean? An attorney’s ethical duties, which can take the form of rules or develop as common law, vary by jurisdiction and are still incomplete in an evolving field like e-discovery. Nevertheless, in our previous articles, we have mentioned various duties that lawyers have in the context of e-discovery, which double as ethical requirements.